An Investigation of Wording Effect in Multidimensional Scales

Wording Effect in Multidimensional Scales


  • Gül Güler Trakya University, Turkey


This research aimed to psychometrically examine articles published in Turkey between 2018 and 2023, where multidimensional scales developed in social sciences group negative items under a separate factor. Accordingly, attempts were made to identify problems stemming from the wording effect while determining the number of factors in scales. In this context, journals within the scope of the ULAKBIM institute were searched, and studies published during the last five years and accessible in full text in electronic format were preferred. When searching for relevant studies, research studies meeting the following criteria were taken into consideration: conducted in social sciences, have open access permission, are published in Turkish, contain only articles, and fully share all the items grouped under factors. In this context, 52 articles providing all items and factors were accessed. According to the study results, none of these articles used dimensionality determination methods other than exploratory factor analysis techniques in determining the structure. Furthermore, the criteria considered in factor extraction were limited to the options offered by statistical software packages. The issue of negative items forming a separate factor together may stem from the wording effect. To gather evidence for the construct validity of the scales developed, the scale developers are recommended to utilize several dimensionality determination methods throughout the process.